Combining SSH and tmux
Today I'll be covering two topics in one. SSH and tmux go hand-in-hand in my daily life, so combining them into one tutorial makes a lot of sense. SSH, specifically OpenSSH, is used by millions of people every day. It's been ported to many operating systems and has become the de facto standard for remote administration of UNIX-like systems. Its roots come from the OpenBSD project, but they also develop a portable version for other OSes. FreeBSD, NetBSD and DragonFlyBSD all provide their own specific SSH documentation. Whatever platform you use it on, you'll want to become familiar with a number of commands and utilities, some of which include:
- ssh - the client command
- sshd - the daemon/server component
- scp - a tool to securely copy files
- sftp - an FTP client/service alternative
- ssh-keygen - a private/public key pair generator
There are a few others, but we'll mostly be focusing on these five. This tutorial will cover basic usage and configuration of an SSH daemon and client, but if you'd like to really learn OpenSSH inside and out, I recommend reading SSH Mastery. It's a very good book and can teach you all the great tricks you'd probably never think of trying. It's possible to create a VPN with SSH and tunnel all your traffic through it. You can run graphical applications through it and much, much more.
We'll start with the daemon configuration. Usually, the file is located at /etc/ssh/sshd_config. A default configuration is fine for now, but definitely give the man page a read for some extreme tweaking possibilities. Here is an example of one of mine:
Port 2222 ListenAddress 126.96.36.199 AddressFamily inet Protocol 2 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ed25519_key SyslogFacility AUTH LogLevel INFO LoginGraceTime 10 PermitRootLogin no StrictModes yes MaxAuthTries 2 MACs firstname.lastname@example.org,hmac-sha1 Ciphers email@example.com,firstname.lastname@example.org,aes256-ctr RSAAuthentication no PubkeyAuthentication yes AuthorizedKeysFile .ssh/authorized_keys RhostsRSAAuthentication no HostbasedAuthentication no IgnoreRhosts yes PasswordAuthentication no PermitEmptyPasswords no ChallengeResponseAuthentication no KerberosAuthentication no GSSAPIAuthentication no AllowUsers tj allan kris AllowAgentForwarding yes AllowTcpForwarding yes X11Forwarding yes X11DisplayOffset 10 PrintLastLog yes TCPKeepAlive yes UsePrivilegeSeparation sandbox Subsystem sftp /usr/libexec/sftp-server
Be sure to read the man page before copying and pasting anything from that. You might lock yourself out of the machine otherwise. How you start the server will depend on what platform you're using, but for most of the BSDs, the following will do:
# /etc/rc.d/sshd start
Now the service will be listening on port 22 (unless you changed it). I'm assuming you've already created a normal user for daily activities. While it's possible to login as root over SSH, it's highly discouraged from a security standpoint. Assuming networking is working on both the server and the client (and you've allowed SSH to pass through any firewalls), you should be able to issue the following command on the client computer:
$ ssh username@serverip
And be presented with a password prompt. Once you login, you'll be at a shell for that server. To securely transfer files between the client and server, you could do something like:
$ scp ~/myfile username@serverip:/tmp
This would copy the "myfile" file in your home directory to /tmp on the server. You can reverse the addresses to copy from the server to the client and so on. If you prefer a more interactive approach to swapping files, SFTP might be the right tool for you.
$ sftp username@serverip
Now you'll have a new SFTP prompt.
Connected to bsdnow.tv. sftp>
From here, you can do normal FTP commands to manipulate files: cd, lcd, rm, get, put, pwd, lpwd, ls, lls, etc. See the sftp man page linked above for more details. As of OpenSSH 6.3, you can also resume partially-downloaded files. If you want to only allow SFTP, see our tutorial for that.
Before we move on to tmux, there are a couple more things I'd recommend doing for your SSH setup. The first is setting up a public/private key pair instead of using passwords. This makes logging in to remote systems faster and safer. From your remote shell session, let's generate a key to use. I prefer Ed25519 keys, but RSA, DSA and ECDSA are also options. While SSHed into the server, we'll make the ~/.ssh directory.
$ mkdir ~/.ssh
From the client PC, let's generate a key pair.
$ ssh-keygen -t ed25519 Generating public/private ed25519 key pair. Enter file in which to save the key (/home/tj/.ssh/id_ed25519): Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): Enter same passphrase again: Your identification has been saved in /home/tj/.ssh/id_ed25519. Your public key has been saved in /home/tj/.ssh/id_ed25519.pub. The key fingerprint is: 67:5d:f7:fa:5f:4c:1d:fb:cb:f8:2f:11:7a:4f:9e:15 email@example.com The key's randomart image is: +--[ED25519 256--+ | | | | | ...| | . ..E=| | S o .. o=| | o . o++| | ..=*| | +o=| | ..=*| +-----------------+
On the client system, we'll use scp to copy over the public key to the server.
$ scp ~/.ssh/id_ed25519.pub username@serverip:.ssh/authorized_keys
You can disable password authentication in sshd_config by changing the "PasswordAuthentication yes" line to "PasswordAuthentication no" after doing this step. Be sure to restart the daemon for changes to take effect. At this point you should be able to SSH into the server without entering your password. It's using the key pair we just generated for authentication now.
Ok, say you're SSHed into your server and getting work done, but suddenly your connection drops. What happens to the SSH session? It's gone.
Say you're SSHed into your server and want to leave something running in the background while you disconnect. Not happening.
This is where tmux comes in to save the day. What is tmux, you ask? According to the project page: "It lets you switch easily between several programs in one terminal, detach them (they keep running in the background) and reattach them to a different terminal - and a lot more."
Traditionally, sysadmins used a tool called "screen" to achieve a similar effect. Unfortunately, screen was not released under a free software license. After years of having no other option, Nicholas Marriott decided to write an alternative to screen that was licensed in a more favorable manner. In 2009, the first version of tmux was released.
If you're using OpenBSD, tmux is part of the base system. Theo had a story about that. For the rest of us, we need to install tmux from ports or pkgsrc or however you'd like to get it. Let's SSH into the server, install tmux and fire it up.
You should see a prompt similar to this:
Anything you do in this tmux session will still be there if your connection drops or you close the terminal. The keybindings for tmux are different than screen's, but there is a workaround for that. You can edit your config file to mimic screen's keybindings if you don't want to relearn anything. I've provided a copy of my ~/.tmux.conf in case you want to do it that way. It also has some other usability improvements. If you'd like to use that one instead of the default, do:
$ ftp -o ~/.tmux.conf http://www.bsdnow.tv/patches/tmuxconf
If you get disconnected while working in tmux, you can reconnect and run:
$ tmux attach
And you'll be right back where you were! It's possible to split a terminal into multiple windows, open new tabs, reorder and close tabs and much more. See the keybindings list for a complete list of things you can do.